There are many different types of microphones. The one that will be best for you will depend on the application, setting, conditions, etc.
The four most common types of microphones for vlogging and filmmaking are dynamic, condenser, lavalier/lapel, and shotgun mics. These may be connected to a camera, mixing board / recorder or directly into a computer / phone / tablet or laptop by XLR, mini audio jack (3.5mm/2.5mm) or USB depending on the microphone and your needs.
Dynamic microphones are the most common hand-held or stage microphones. They are relatively affordable, easy to use and not as sensitive as other microphones. This makes them less prone to picking up background noise.
Condenser microphones are the most popular type for studios, radio, streaming, podcasts, etc. Due to the lightweight construction, the diaphragm of a condenser microphone can follow sound waves better than that of a dynamic microphone. This results in the "crisp" and clear sound you get.
Lavalier or Lapel microphones are the small microphones that you can clip onto the collar of a shirt or other pieces of clothing/equipment. These are especially popular for interviews, or even discreet audio capture like you see when professional athletes wear microphones under their equipment.
Shotgun microphones are known for their directional capabilities and ability to exclude surrounding noise. The longer the barrel of the microphone, the more directional the audio capture is. These types of microphones are used for capturing audio at a distance, but also used on booms for capturing audio overhead on film and TV sets.